Learning English
Grammar Rules: ▼ Tenses ▼ Futures ▼ Conditionals ▼ Relative Clauses ▼ Passives ▼ Reported Speech ▼ Questions ▼ Articles ▼ Adjectives ▼ Modal Verbs ▼ Gerunds/Infinitives
Grammar Exercises
Grammar Terms
FCE practice

Reported Speech


Direct speech is the exact words spoken. For example:

"I love Chris," said Susan.

reported speech picture

Reported (or indirect speech) is when we say what was said before.

You said that you loved Chris.

There are four things you need to remember to change.
  1. The tense. If the events are now in the past, you need to change the verbs to the past forms.
  2. present simplechanges topast simple
    present continuouspast continuous
    present perfectpast perfect
    musthad to
    is going towas going to

  3. The pronouns. Words like 'I' and 'his' and 'they' will all change, because the people speaking have changed.

  4. Some time expressions. If the time has changed, words like 'yesterday' are meaningless. Instead, we say
    the day/week before or the previous day/week
    the following day/week or the next day/week

  5. If the place has changed, "here" should change to "there".

Reported Speech Practice

Next lesson: Reported Questions